Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder that affects the colon and rectum of individuals. It can affect the inner lining of the large intestine, which can cause changes in bowel movements. It does not show symptoms in the benign, which can cause progression of the disease without proper treatment.
Countless people globally endure the challenges of rheumatoid arthritis, a persistent inflammatory condition leading to pain, swelling, and joint issues. Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto-immune disorder that causes chronic inflammation affecting many joints, including hands and feet.
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by excessive thirst and urination. Unlike diabetes mellitus, which involves blood sugar regulation, DI involves a problem with the kidneys that leads to the excretion of large amounts of diluted urine. Managing DI involves a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and therapies to alleviate symptoms and maintain proper fluid balance in your body.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a tough challenge in healthcare today. It needs a collaborative treatment approach that not just focuses on the kidneys but also on other health issues and nutrition problems. Various nutrients are super important in helping manage CKD better.
Type 2 diabetes leads to an increase in blood sugar levels, and it is known as adult-onset diabetes. Over a million people are affected by type 2 diabetes. It can lead to major health problems if you are not treating it properly. Type 2 diabetes mellitus can be managed by controlling the blood sugar level.
Anovulation occurs when an egg (ovum) does not release properly during the menstrual cycle. This can reduce or affect the chances of getting pregnant in women. An ovum or egg, which can fuse with the sperm released from the male reproductive organ during fertilization, is crucial in pregnancy.
Osteoporosis and menopause are often interlinked to each other due to the estrogen level that influences the specialized bone cells in the body (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes). Postmenopausal women are often facing difficulties in their health due to the hormonal change that happens in the body.
Hormone Replacement Therapy is a therapeutic option for managing menopausal symptoms that involves restoring hormones that become low as women approach menopause and during the post-menopausal period. Menopause symptoms include hot flashes, nocturnal sweats, vaginal dryness, mood swings, and bone loss.
Cardiovascular disease is a group of disorders that can affect the heart and blood vessels of individuals. Hypertension (high blood pressure) is the common risk factor for cardiovascular diseases like coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, aortic aneurysm, and chronic kidney disease.
The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland present in men and responsible for producing seminal fluids. Commonly, 1 in 8 men often develop prostate cancer, but the severity will vary as age and disease progression. Prostate cancer is defined as the growth and spread of abnormal tumor cells in the prostate gland. Most of the time, men are unaware of this disease and often present as asymptomatic, which paves the way for the spread of cancer in other parts of the body.
Diabetes mellitus is a disorder that causes impaired or decreased production of insulin hormone that leads to excessive production of glucose in the bloodstream. Over the years, diabetes has evolved as a single major causative disorder that paves the way for various diseases like cardiovascular disorders, stroke, kidney failure, and more. The prevalence and mortality rate for this disorder have always been on the uptrend.
Breast cancer is commonly affecting cancer in women, and it is more common in postmenopausal women who have passed over 50 years of age. Even Though there are various advanced treatments involved in treating breast cancer, the aromatase inhibitor plays a vital role in treating breast cancer patients who have gone through the menopause stage.
Cervical cancer is the most common among women. It can be caused by various factors like Human papillomavirus (HPV), smoking, weakened immunity, multiple sex and family history. Thus, there is an increased need for a precision medical approach to treating it, which helps to treat people based on their genetic makeup, lifestyle, and specific health factors.
The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland present only in men and responsible for producing seminal fluids. Commonly, 1 in 8 men often develop prostate cancer, but the severity will vary as age and disease progresses. Prostate cancer can develop and spread to other parts of the body. Prostate cancer is defined as the growth and spread of abnormal tumor cells in the prostate gland.
The gut is a human gastrointestinal system that includes the stomach, intestine, and colon. Gut health has always been the talk of the town, and recently, it has gained increasing attention not only from the healthcare community but also from the general public. The gut is important not only for digestion, but it also plays an important role in maintaining overall well being.
Over time, the treatment strategies for Multiple Myeloma have been changed due to the introduction of many new medications. Conventionally, the treatment involved mostly chemotherapy medications, but now, with the introduction of immunotherapy (which helps the immune system fight cancer), the treatment options are expanding, and patients' survival rates have improved consequently.
Head and neck cancers are the collective term for various cancers originating from various areas of head and neck such as oral cavity, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), paranasal sinus, nasal cavity, and salivary glands. This cancer originates in cells that line the mucosal layer of the head and neck areas. These cancers develop when the healthy cells in these areas grow out of control and form a tumor. Head and Neck cancers are the sixth most commonly spread cancer across the world.
Types of Head and Neck Cancer
According to the part of the body where they develop these head and neck cancers can be classified into five major types.
- Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer
- Nasal cavity cancers
- Nasopharyngeal cancer
- Oral and oropharyngeal cancer
- Salivary gland cancer
These types of cancers affect the voice box (larynx) and their surrounding tissues, air filled sacs around the nasal cavity, airway in the upper part of the throat, areas of nose, mouth, tongue and even salivary glands.
Causes of Head and Neck Cancer
- Tobacco and alcohol use
- Human papillomavirus infection (HPV), specifically type 16
- Occupational exposure to asbestos, formaldehyde, certain metals and ceramics
- Exposure to radiation
- Poor oral care for a prolonged period
- Epstein-Barr virus infection
Treating Head and Neck cancers
As with any cancer cure, similarly for head and neck cancer conventional treatment approaches usually followed according to the treatment guidelines. The various treatment options can include surgical removal of the infected part, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and sometimes a combinational approach is also undertaken based on the severity of the cancer and its spread.
However, the treatment plan will depend upon various factors like the area where the cancer is present, the stage of the cancer, age, and other health factors. The traditional treatment methods were not as effective, and hence, a multifaceted approach must be practiced to prevent the recurrence. Incorporating personalized or precision medicine based approaches on individual needs significantly improved the recovery rates. Robotic surgeries are being increasingly incorporated into the field as they offer vast advantages such as, high precision and detailed visualization with its ability to handle complex surgical procedures along with minimally invasive procedures.
Chemotherapy approaches in Head and Neck cancer
The chemotherapy approach involves the mechanism of employment of medications to kill and eradicate the cancer cells, thus preventing their growth and spread. Chemotherapeutic procedures can be carried out either before the surgery (neo-adjuvant chemotherapy) or after the surgery ( adjuvant chemotherapy).
Treatment plans for personalized chemotherapy are created taking into account the features of cancer, its mutation, and spread, as well as aspects unique to each patient, like gene specificity and receptors. Personalized approaches offer an advantage such that it allows adaptive treatment plans by altering the regimens if needed thereby offering a dynamic approach in treating cancer.
- Tumour molecular profiling: Various advancement techniques in genomic sequencing have paved the way for better identifying genetic mutations and tumor alterations. Various chemotherapeutic medications targeting these specific mutations can yield a better outcome. Cetuximab targets the epidermal growth factor receptor and inhibits its over expression.
- Combination therapy approaches: oncologists can create a multi-treatment plan for their patients, including immunotherapy, radiation, and targeted therapy. For example, anticancer medication docetaxel, along with radiation therapy, produces an improvement in their quality of life.
- Biomarker driven treatments: Personalized chemotherapy relies on biomarkers that are responsible for blocking and inhibiting the pathways that are essential for growth and development of tumor cells
Personalized therapeutic regimens have developed as a novel approach in management of several cancers. This treatment approach has revolutionised cancer care by incorporating a wide range of strategies which enables the oncologists to selectively curate treatment plans based on individual needs that improve the quality of life. Multidisciplinary team approaches involving oncologists, surgeons, speech therapists, nutritionists are essential in planning and management of treatment and side effects involved in it.
The long term shift of earth's climate pattern is caused mainly by man made activities that leave a dent on the protective ozone layer. Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, rapid industrialization etc have led to release of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane into the atmosphere that traps the heat and causes global warming. Impact of Climate Change on the Prevalence Bacterial Infections